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• Heterologous prime—boost regimen with antigenically diverse recombinant poxviruses encoding for tumor-associated antigens and B7.1/ICAM-1/LFA3 cassette represents a most promising vaccination schedule inducing clinical and immunological responses.
• PANVAC shows clinical efficacy in patients with metastatic breast and ovarian cancers.
• Patients with limited tumor burden and minimal prior chemotherapy had a benefit from PANVAC vaccination.
• PANVAC was demonstrated to be immunologically active in some of the patients who developed clinical responses.
• Overall survival, rather than progression-free survival, may be more relevant for addressing the effects of therapeutic cancer vaccines.
• PANVAC, as also other cancer vaccines, elicits a dynamic process of immune responses, which may be exploited in subsequent therapies.
• Vaccines used in the adjuvant setting (i.e., in patients with low tumor burden following conventional treatment) may be more efficacious than in patients with more advanced disease having increased tumor load.
• Immunological end points as intermediate markers are needed for assessing clinical efficacy shortly after vaccination.
Financial & competing interests disclosure
The author has no relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter discussed in the article. This includes employment, consultancies, stock ownership or options, grants or patents received or pending, or royalties.
No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this article.
• Pressure, discomfort or pain in the pelvis, abdomen, back, or legs
• Gas, bloating, indigestion or abdominal distension
• Early satiety or feeling full even if you haven't eaten much
• Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite or weight loss
• A change in the pattern of urination
• Abnormal vaginal bleeding, including abnormal menstrual periods