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Wednesday, May 18, 2016

Clinical impacts of mesothelin expression in gastrointestinal carcinomas (+ovarian...)

Wiki: Mesothelin (40-kDa)


 Mesothelin, C-ERC/mesothelin is a 40-kDa cell surface glycoprotein that is normally present on normal mesothelial cells lining the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium. Moreover, mesothelin has been shown to be overexpressed in several human cancers, including virtually all mesothelioma and pancreatic cancer, approximately 70% of ovarian cancer and extra bile duct cancer, and 50% of lung adenocarcinomas and gastric cancer. The full-length human mesothelin gene encodes the primary product, a 71-kDa precursor protein. The 71-kDa mesothelin precursor is cleaved into two products, 40-kDa C-terminal fragment that remains membrane-bound via glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, and a 31-kDa N-terminal fragment, megakaryocyte potentiating factor, which is secreted into the blood. The biological functions of mesothelin remain largely unknown. However, results of recent studies have suggested that the mesothelin may play a role of cell proliferation and migration. In pancreatic cancer, mesothelin expression was immunohistochemically observed in all cases, but absent in normal pancreas and in chronic pancreatitis. Furthermore, the expression of mesothelin was correlated with an poorer patient outcome in several human cancers. The limited mesothelin expression in normal tissues and high expression in many cancers makes it an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. The present review discusses the expression and function of mesothelin in cancer cells and the utility of mesothelin as a target of cancer therapy.


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