Low-grade serous ovarian cancer: A review Ovarian Cancer and Us OVARIAN CANCER and US Ovarian Cancer and Us

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Sunday, August 28, 2016

Low-grade serous ovarian cancer: A review



The presence of a BRAF mutation in a serous borderline tumour may protect against progression to low-grade serous cancer
The presence of a KRAS mutation in a low-grade serous tumour may be a good prognostic factor
The most important prognostic factor in patients with low-grade cancer is the amount of residual disease post-surgery

Epithelial ovarian cancers can be divided into the more common, aggressive type II cancers and the less common, slow-growing type I cancers. Under this model, serous ovarian carcinomas can be subdivided into high-grade (type II) and low-grade (type I) tumours. The two-tier system for grading serous ovarian carcinomas is superior to more detailed grading systems in terms of predicting survival. Low-grade serous carcinomas typically present in young women and have a relatively good prognosis, despite being resistant to chemotherapy. Low-grade serous cancers have a high prevalence of KRAS and BRAF mutations, but a low prevalence of TP53 mutations (which are characteristic of high-grade serous cancers). Among women with low-grade serous ovarian cancer, the presence of a KRAS/BRAF mutation is a favorable prognostic factor. Studies of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor in low-grade serous ovarian cancer suggest that identifying MAPK mutations might eventually be useful in guiding treatment.

 MEK stands for the MAPK/ERK kinase, and it is among the series of regulatory kinases targeting that pathway. It has a dual role, acting as both a serine/threonine kinase and a tyrosine kinase.


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