OA: Inheritance of deleterious mutations at both BRCA1 and BRCA2 in an international sample of 32,295 women Ovarian Cancer and Us OVARIAN CANCER and US Ovarian Cancer and Us

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Saturday, November 12, 2016

OA: Inheritance of deleterious mutations at both BRCA1 and BRCA2 in an international sample of 32,295 women

transheterozygosity:  two organisms that carry one mutation each, in two different genes, and selecting for the presence of both mutations simultaneously in an individual offspring.
Full Text
 The vast majority of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are single heterozygotes for BRCA1 (SH1) or BRCA2 (SH2).
Table 1
Transheterozygote BRCA1 + BRCA2 mutations in 93 women (including country eg. Spain, Italy, UK, USA, Canada.....)



Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood.


From 32,295 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, we identified 93 TH (0.3 %). “Cases” were defined as TH, and “controls” were single mutations at BRCA1 (SH1) or BRCA2 (SH2). Matched SH1 “controls” carried a BRCA1 mutation found in the TH “case”. Matched SH2 “controls” carried a BRCA2 mutation found in the TH “case”. After matching the TH carriers with SH1 or SH2, 91 TH were matched to 9316 SH1, and 89 TH were matched to 3370 SH2.


The majority of TH (45.2 %) involved the three common Jewish mutations. TH were more likely than SH1 and SH2 women to have been ever diagnosed with breast cancer (BC; p = 0.002). TH were more likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) than SH2 (p = 0.017), but not SH1. Age at BC diagnosis was the same in TH vs. SH1 (p = 0.231), but was on average 4.5 years younger in TH than in SH2 (p < 0.001). BC in TH was more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER) positive (p = 0.010) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive (p = 0.013) than in SH1, but less likely to be ER positive (p < 0.001) or PR positive (p = 0.012) than SH2. Among 15 tumors from TH patients, there was no clear pattern of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for BRCA1 or BRCA2 in either BC or OC.


We report evidence that the BRCA1 mutation in TH may drive these clinical TH phenotypes based on elevated OC risk in TH vs. SH2 but not SH1, and earlier age of BC diagnosis in TH vs. SH2 but not SH1. Therefore, TH may be managed more like BRCA1 mutation carriers than BRCA2 mutation carriers. In contrast, TH breast tumor characteristics (e.g., ER/PR status) are intermediate in phenotype to SH1 and SH2. Future studies are warranted to understand whether TH should be managed differently to SH1 or SH2 carriers, and, if so, to enable individualized counseling and clinical management appropriate for TH mutation carriers.



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