Cancer screening barriers and facilitators for under and never screened populations (breast, cervical, colorectal) Ovarian Cancer and Us OVARIAN CANCER and US Ovarian Cancer and Us

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Monday, October 31, 2016

Cancer screening barriers and facilitators for under and never screened populations (breast, cervical, colorectal)



abstract

Cancer screening barriers and facilitators for under and never screened populations: A mixed methods study


Highlights

Significant barriers to cancer screening relate to the universal human condition of fear.
Significant facilitators for cancer screening are related to relationship and communication.
The top barriers and facilitators are consistent across the three cancers and upscale from local to provincial levels.

Background

Cancer screening is below targets in Ontario, Canada. Our objective was to identify and quantify the barriers and facilitators for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening for under and never screened (UNS) residents living in Ontario between 2011 and 2013.

Methods

We used a multi-phased mixed methods study design. Results from thematic analysis of focus group discussions with health care providers and UNS community members were used to develop an on-line, province-wide, cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of barriers and facilitators for the provincial population. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for UNS compared to regularly screened participants using logistic regression.

Results

Four focus groups were held with health service providers and sixteen with UNS community members. Top barriers and facilitators themed around provider-patient communication, fear and embarrassment, history of physical or sexual abuse, social determinants of health (including low literacy, lack of awareness, and health insurance), symptoms appearing, and family and friends. 3075 participants completed the online survey. Compared to regularly screened participants, UNS had significantly higher odds of reporting: no regular health care provider; not feeling comfortable talking about screening; or the Doctor or Nurse Practitioner not suggesting screening. UNS also had significantly higher odds of reporting the facilitators: the test being less scary/painful or uncomfortable; friend/family insisting on getting screened; starting to have symptoms; or an easier test that could be done at home.

Conclusions

Interventions addressing fear through individual, interpersonal and structural facilitators may increase cancer screening.

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